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C Ramchandra

Tuesday, June 26th, 2012

C Ramchandra

Ramchandra Narhar Chitalkar(Marathi: रामचंद्र नरहर चितळकर /सी.रामचंद्र ) (January 12, 1918–January 5, 1982) was a renowned music composer in the movie industry of India. In the composer’s role, he mostly used the name C. Ramachandra, though he also used the names Annasaheb (in the movies Bahadur Pratap, Matwale, and Madadgaar), Ram Chitalkar (in the movies Sukhi Jeevan, Badla, Mr. Jhatpat, Bahadur, and Dosti), and Shyamoo (in the movie Yeh hai duniya). Further, he often sang and acted in Marathi movies under the name R. N. Chitalkar. For his career as an occasional playback singer he used only his surname Chitalkar. Chitalkar sang some renowned and unforgettable duets with Lata such as Kitna haseen hai mausam in film Azad or Shola Jo bhadke in Albela.
Ramachandra was born on January 12 1918 in Puntamba, a small town in Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra, India. He studied music under Vinayakbua Patwardhan at “Gandharva Mahavidyalaya” and also under Shankarrao Sapre of Nagpur where he studied music alongside Vasantrao Deshpande. He joined the movie industry playing the lead role in Y. V. Rao’s movie, Naganand. He also had some small roles at Minerva Movietone in the movies Saeed-e-Havas and Atma Tarang.
Ramachandra provided harmonium accompaniment for Minerva composers Bindu Khan and Habib Khan. He debuted as music director in Tamil movies with Jayakkodi and [[Vana Mohini]]. He received public notice as a good composer in Bhagwan Dada’s “Sukhi Jeevan”, and established a long association that culminated with the musical box office hit “Albela”.
Influenced by Benny Goodman, Ramachandra introduced in his compositions the alto sax in combination with guitar and harmonica. He also included whistling in one of his famous songs, Aana meri jaan Sunday ke Sunday in film Shehnai. He used a combination of a bongo, an oboe, a trumpet, a clarinet and a sax for the song Shola Jo Bhadke in film Albela. He sang the title song “Shin Shinaki Boobla Boo” with Lata Mangeshkar, which included rock rhythms. He provided the musical score for the scat song “Ina mina dika” in “Aasha”.
Perhaps C. Ramachandra’s biggest success as a music composer was the 1953 movie Anarkali starring Beena Roy in the title role and Pradeep Kumar. The songs that he composed for this movie are today legendary. Songs of this movie like “Yeh Zindagi usiki hai”, “Mujhse mat pooch mere ishq main kya rakha hai”, “Mohabbat aise dhadkan hain”, “Jaag dard-e-ishq jaag” etc.. went on to become huge hits and were also highly acclaimed as masterpieces. Anarkali also perhaps saw the famed composer-singer combine of Ramachandra and Lata Mangeshkar at their best ever together. A film critic in London who watched the movie is said to have remarked that the heroine sang like an angel without knowing that the angel was actually Lata giving playback for the actress.
The highly popular patriotic song “Aye Mere Watan Ke Logo”, which was sung by Lata Mangeshkar and penned by poet Pradeep, was a composition of Ramachandra, it was later performed live, by Lata Mangeshkar, in the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru at the Ramlila grounds, in New Delhi on Republic Day, 26 January 1963. Jawaharlal Nehru became so sentimental that tears rolled down his cheeks.[1]
Ramachandra similarly provided a memorable musical score accompanying a competition between two dancers whose roles were played by Padmini and Vyjayanthimala for the song Kannum Kannum Kalanthu lyrics penned by Kothamangalam Subbu, sung by P. Leela and Jikki in the Tamil movie Vanjikottai Valiban. He remade the song in Hindi as “Aaja To Aaja” from Raj Tilak written by P. L. Santoshi where Asha Bhosle and Sudha Malhotra rendered their voice.
Ramachandra provided music compositions for a few Marathi, Telugu, Tamil, and Bhojpuri movies besides Hindi movies. In 1953, he also produced with “New Sai Productions” three Hindi movies: “Jhanjhar”, “Lehren”, “Duniya Gol Hai”.
In the late 1960s, Ramachandra produced two Marathi movies, “Dhananjay” and “Gharkul”. He also acted in them and composed music for them. C. Ramchandra died of acute peptic ulcer on the 5th January 1982 at Breach Candy Hospital, Mumbai.
Ramchandra wrote his autobiography in Marathi in 1977.
Mumbai based troupe Musicolor,which is promoting vintage music, presented an exclusive tribute programmes featuring the gems of C Ramchandra at Dinanath Mangeshkar auditorium on 22 January 2010.

Movies for which Ramachandra provided musical scores are listed below in alphabetical order:

Aanchal
Aazad
Ahinsa
Albela
Amar Rahe Ye Pyar
Amardeep
Anarkali
Asha
Baarish
Bachchon Ka Khel
Badla
Bahadur
Bahadur Pratap
Bahu Rani
Balram Shri Krishna
Bhakt Raaj
Chhatrapati Shivaji
Daal Me Kaala
Devta
Dil Ki Baat
Dosti
Duniya
Duniya Gol Hai
Ghungroo
Girls School
Hanso Hanso Ae Duniya Walo
Hum Diwane [as Annasahib]
Hungama
Insaniyat
Jhaanjhar
Jhamela
Jitne Door Utne Paas
Kaarigar
Kavi
Khazana
Khidki
Labelaa
Lahren
Lalkaar
Leela
Lutera
Madadgaar
Madam Zapazta
Manorama
Matwaale
Meenar
Mera Munna
Mr. Jhatpat
Muskurahat
Naastik
Nadiya Ke Paar
Naghma-e-Sehra
Namoona
Naushervan-e-Dil
Navrang
Nazrana
Nirala
Paayal Ki Jhankar
Paigham
Parchhain
Patangaa
Pehli Jhalak
Raj Tilak
Raunaq
Rootha Na Karo
Roshni
Saajan
Saanwaria
Saaqi
Saavdhan
Saawan
Safar
Sagaai
Samadhi
Samrat Chandragupt
Sangeeta
Sangraam
Sargam
Sarhad
Saudagar
Shabistaan
Shadi Se Pehle
Shagoofa
Sharda
Shatranj
Shehnai
Sher Dil
Shin Shinaki Bublaa Boo
Siphaiya
Stree
Subah Ka Tara
Sukhi Jivan
Talaaq
Talaash
Tasveer
Teerandaaz
Toofani Takkar
Tulsi Vivaah
Ustaad Pedro
Veer Bhimsen
Wahaan Ke Log
Yasmeen
Zabaan
Zindagi Aur Maut

When a railway worker Narhari Chitalkar living in Puntambe – a small town in Maharashtra – got a son on January 12, 1918 and named him Ramchandra, little did he know that his son would never be called by the plain and simple name ‘R.N. Chitalkar’! From the early age young Ramchandra was fascinated by music and drama. He left for Kolhapur after leaving the school in ninth standard and tried his hand at acting. At the age of seventeen he bagged a hero’s role in ‘Naganand’- a film which bombed heavily at the box-office. After this early setback he moved on to Bombay. His training in classical music from Shankar Rao Sapre came in handy to bag a job as a music assistant in Minerva Movietone where he started working with the then leading music directors Mir Sahib and Bundu Khan. Soon, thanks to his ability to write notations of the tunes, he became an important cog in the wheel.
His debut film as a music director was in Tamil films with Jayakkodi and Vanamohini. He got his first Hindi film, Bhagwan’s Sukhi Jiwan, in 1942. Ramchandra’s juvenile songs may be sub-divided into those with highly westernized male and / or female choruses, duets or quawwalis. The mood of these songs was zany, saucy, raucous, irreverent, mischief-laden..joyful noice. The composer’s natural ebullience, boyish vigor and state of camaraderie with the young man of the Hindi cinema are evident here. It was ‘let’s have a good time’ music; on the screen the purveyors of these songs were either the raunchy comedy team of Yakub and Gope (Patanga, Saaqi, etc.) or the funnyman Bhagwan (Albela, Shin Shinaki Bubla Boo, etc.) who was often Ramchandra’s juvenile persona on the screen.
An outstanding feature of many of these songs is their intense curiosity about western mores and manners; they often employed western musical idioms in exaggerated fashion either for satire or irony. These songs mirrored the curiosity of the educated, urbanized Indian youth of British India regarding their colonizers. Popular belief has it that Ramchandra introduced rock ‘n’ roll in India before it became a rage in the west. This is a paltry statement in the face of his numerous experiments in western/Indian and middle-eastern styles. For example, in ‘Meri Jaan..Sunday Ke Sunday..’ (Shehnai) he introduced the Benny Goodman style of jazz clarinet in combination with an Indian melody. The song is infused with hilarious verbal and musical incongruities resulting in a comical effect. Other westernized songs e.g. ‘Shola Jo Bhadke..’ and ‘Ye Diwana Ye Parwana..’ (Albela) employed cabaret type dance feturing bongo drums, oboes, clarinets, trumpets, saxophones, etc. The spirit and atmoshphere of these songs convey much hilarity, exuberance and gaiety of the sort one finds in opera comique of Jacques Offenbach.
Bhagwan – a leading comedian and film maker of that era – spotted Ramchandra’s musical talent and offered him his film ‘Sukhi Jeevan’ as a composer. That year was 1942. At the age of twenty four a glittering career was about to begin. The promise turned into reality with hit soundtracks like ‘Lalkar’, ‘Safar’, ‘Samrat Chandragupta’ and ‘Bhaktaraj’. It was during the making of ‘Bhaktaraj’ he was re-christened ‘C.Ramchandra’ by the film’s producer Jayant Desai. This screen name was to stick permanently. Only when he would sing his own songs the records labeled him as Chitalkar. So as a composer he was C.Ramchandra, as a singer he was Chitalkar and to the near and dear ones he was simply Anna!
The fifties saw him emerge as one of the leading lights of Hindi film music. His music in films like ‘Nastik’, ‘Shagufa’, ‘Sangeeta’, ‘Kaarigar’, ‘Khazana’, ‘Yasmin’, ‘Teerandaz’, ‘Shinshinaki bublaboo’, ‘Parchhai’ and ‘Yasmin’ is still remembered fondly by nostalgic music lovers. But for the common listeners his introduction is through his more popular soundtracks – ‘Anarkali’, ‘Albela’, ‘Aazad’ and ‘Navrang’.
His music had a superb mix of melody and rhythm. Exceptional blending of piano, violins, tabla, dholak and khanjiri gave unique freshness and liveliness to his tunes. If Kishore’s Ina mina dika and Asha’s Mister John o Baba Khan showed his trendiness then Talat’s Mohabbat hi na jo samajhe or Rafi’s Yeh hasrat thi vouched for his mastery over emotional stuff. But his musical association with Lata Mangeshkar was something really special. Their songs are in a league of their own. Even if you haven’t heard hidden gems like Ab woh raaten kahan, Jo mujhe bhulake chale gaye, Bheeni bheeni hai or Tum kya jaano, just take the well-known popular songs like Mohabbat aisi dhadkan hai, Radha na bole re, Dheere se aaja ri ankhiyan mein or Kaise aaoon Jamuna ke teer and the terrific chemistry that they shared is all too apparent!
Even today’s audiences go gaga over ‘Albela’s Lata – Chitalkar duets Shaam dhale khidki tale, Shola jo bhadke and Bholi surat dil ke khotey. Over all these years theatre screens showing these songs have never failed to be showered with coins thrown by the frenzied fans. The jazzy rhythm of this Bholi surat was played by a toilet- cleaner on a tin pot. Can you believe it?
He did many such unbelievable things – like adapting from a Marathi naatya- geet (Murtimant bheeti ubhi) the evergreen ‘Anarkali’ classic Yeh zindaghi usiki hai, converting another naatyageet (Sukhvi Tula) into the Parchhai- delight Naina Lagake Dukh De Gayo, using the maddham from an Islamic qawwali to create that bewitching beauty Dil ki duniya basa ke saawariya and composing the entire soundtrack of ‘Azaad’ studded with sparkling songs like Jaari jaari o kaari badariya, Dekho ji bahar aayi, Kitni jawan hai raat, Kitna haseen hai mausam and Aplam chaplam in just seven days! Lata reckoned him to be the fastest composer she ever came across.
Those who lavish extravagant praise – richly deserved, of course on the filmi ghazals of Madan Mohan and Khaiyyam, forget that C Ramchandra composed some of the most exemplary song in this genre. One need only to point to those sung by Lata or by Talat Mehmood in Parchhain, Yasmin and Kavi. Furthermore, those who simplistically claim that Lata Mangeshkar was at her best under Madan Mohan’s baton engage in cruel, selective memory. Song upon song composed by Ramchandra for Lata Mangeshkar belie those contentions. Moreover, it is conveniently forgotten that Madan Mohan worked under Ramchandra for the songs od Shabistan (1951). No wonder, then, that Madan Mohan’s music has an underlying Ramchandran flavour. The supreme lyricism of their melodies united them; further, their orchestra had similar sound and ambience. Except that Ramchandra’s string section (violin) had a more dancing , ‘waltzing’ sound. In a Madan Mohan song the ‘waltzing’ effect was more muted, to create a more somber sound.
It is noteworthy that although C Ramchandra was most commonly associated with lyricists Rajendra Krishan and Santhoshi. In Anarkali he worked with three lyricists, Krishan, Shailendra, and Hasrat Jaipuri. In his later he employed Noor Lakhnavi (Parchhain), Jan Nissar Akhtar (Yasmin), Pradeep (Nastik), Shakeel Badayuni (Zindagi Aur Maut) and others. The diversity of poetic sources notwithstanding, his style remained intact.
His finest hour came through his non- film composition Aye mere watan ke logon. Composed for an army welfare programme after the Indo – China war (1962) and sung by Lata, this emotional patriotic number even moved the then Prime Minister Pt. Nehru to tears. Such was the impact of this song on Nehru that he embraced the composer on stage!
But soon after that heady success, slowly but surely he lost his ground to the newcomers. His soured personal and professional relationship with Lata definitely contributed to his downfall as he could never really find the same magic with other playback singers. The few soundtracks in this period (Bahurani, Stree and Jitne Door Utne Paas) where he got Lata’s vocals back again, he came up with superb compositions like Main jaagun saari rain, Jhilmil jhilmil, O nirdayi preetam and Humne apna tumhen samjha.
But the decline in the quality of his music was all too evident in most of his ‘sans Lata’ soundtracks. ‘Navrang’ was perhaps the only soundtrack where he could shake off his Lata-fixation and succeeded with Asha – Mahendra Kapoor combine. Songs Aadha hai chandrama, Are jaare hat natkhat and Tu chhupi hai kahan had the same spark as before.
After ‘Rootha na karo’ (1970), he didn’t compose for Hindi films. Last few years of his life were spent in composing music for non-film songs. On January 5, 1982 – a week before his sixty-fourth birthday he left this world.
Now only memories remain!